In 2014 India’s Kailash Satyarthi and Pakistan’s Malala Yousafzai shared the Nobel peace prize. Ironically, it was a time when border tensions had resurfaced between India and Pakistan. But hopefully this shared peace prize is going to remind people on both sides of the fence that there are values we share. The future of our children is hopefully one such value.
Kailash Satyarthi is an activist who has worked, over a period of thirty years, to eliminate the practice of child labor in India. In 1983 he formed the ‘Bachpan Bachao Andolan’ (the Save Childhood Campaign), which has since rescued about 80,000 children from illegal and hazardous work across India. Subsequently, he founded ‘GoodWeave international’ (formerly known as Rugmark) to rehabilitate children working in the handmade carpet industry. GoodWeave approaches the problem from a ‘supply chain’ and ‘consumer’ perspective.
GoodWeave international is an organization that certifies rugs (that meet certain standards) as ‘child labor free’. It also provides education and other opportunities to children rescued from these rug factories.  But before talking in greater detail about the work done by GoodWeave, it will be useful to understand the widespread problem of child labor in the rug industry.
Children between the ages of 4 to 14 are kidnapped or sold and forced to work for up to 18 hours a day to weave rugs meant for export markets in places such as the United States and Europe.  The working conditions in the rug industry lead to these children developing malnutrition, impaired vision, deformities caused due to sitting hunched up in loom sheds and respiratory diseases from inhaling wool fibers.  Further, girl children who are trafficked for the purposes of the carpet industry are often forced into commercial sex work. This situation makes the work done by GoodWeave International very important.
The GoodWeave model uses the concept of business goodwill to combat the practice of child labor. The certification system is premised on the notion that consumers would prefer to buy products that they know have been ethically manufactured. In order to earn the GoodWeave label rug exporters and importers need to sign a contract to adhere to GoodWeave’s no child labor standard. GoodWeave insists on extensive monitoring and auditing in every stage of the supply chain. The contract requires the exporters to agree to surprise inspections and to pay a licensing fee that supports the educational programs run by GoodWeave. GoodWeave’s arrangements with importers in markets such as Europe and USA, ensures that they import only from GoodWeave certified exporters in South Asia.
Let us turn now to the effectiveness of this movement. Rugs carrying the GoodWeave mark constitute 5% of the import market in North America and Europe. The reason for the pervasiveness of child labor in the larger rug industry is that there is a ‘market demand’ for child labor. Since employing children means that employers can pay lower wages, the manufacturing cost of the rugs in driven down. This is where the certification plays a role by creating consumer awareness and a demand for ethically sourced products.
But it must be noted that labor activists have shared concerns that the complexity of the modern supply chain does make assurances difficult. This difficulty is highlighted by the fact that since its inception, 3700 workers have been ‘rescued’ from factories that were affiliated with the GoodWeave brand. However, the GoodWeave logo is as close as one can get to an assurance of child labor free products.
Concerns with child labor are not restricted to the rug industry only. According to the ILO (Global Child Labor Trends 2008- 2012) there are 168 million children involved in Child Labor all across the world. Concerns in relation to child labor are prevalent in industries like garment, electronics, and chocolate.  The International Labor Organization has Conventions that govern the field. These are the ILO Convention No 138 (the Convention Concerning the Minimum Age for Admission to Work) and the ILO Convention No 182 (On the Worst Forms of Child Labor). The ILO has also issued the Recommendation 190 (on the worst forms of child labor) and the Recommendation 146 (the minimum age recommendation). Sadly, India (with a very high number of child laborers) is among the few nations that have not ratified the Convention on the Worst forms of Child Labor. Despite this there are stringent laws relating to Child Labor in India, in addition to the Juvenile Justice Act and Article 24 of the Indian Constitution. The problem, it seems, is in the implementation.
Though there has been a decrease in the numbers over the years, child labor is still a problem of massive proportions. One of the ways in which this can be tackled (along with laws being well implemented) is through supply chain monitoring (of which the GoodWeave model is a species). It seems appropriate that countries should have laws that require their Corporations to share supply chain information (or at least the lack thereof). Such a law has already been passed by California and is known as the Transparency in Supply Chains Act of 2010. It requires retail sellers and manufacturers doing business in the State (having more than $100,000,000 in annual worldwide gross receipts) to disclose their efforts to eradicate slavery and human trafficking from their direct supply chains for tangible goods offered for sale. This kind of legislation will ensure that there is supply chain transparency, and allow the consumers to make more informed choices. It will also bolster certification systems like GoodWeave, that can use the licensing fees they obtain from the businesses to rehabilitate the rescued victims of child labor.
Before I conclude, I would like to tell you dear reader, what you can do to tackle this problem. You may not buy rugs, but I am pretty sure you buy chocolates, clothes and electronics. If you are Indian, I can bet you buy crackers on Diwali. I want you to start asking questions about where the stuff you buy comes from. Are those crackers child labor free? Are those clothes made in sweat-shop conditions? What about that delicious piece of chocolate or the cool phone? Some of you, who are more sartorially inclined might want to check out the Ethical Fashion Forum.  It will not be easy for you make lifestyle changes immediately, and some of you may elect to not care. It doesn’t matter. ASK. On some brands you will find information quickly, on some you won’t, but when you ask for information, you become a part of a process to effect change. Your questions will create a demand for answers, and once it is out in the open that a company uses child labor or sweatshop like conditions in manufacturing the products, there will be a loss of goodwill for those companies. This is already happening, and we need to create a momentum for it. It is time that we gave information to consumers, and created a market where there is a disincentive for unethical practices. It is also time consumers asked!